Alternative social and political systems arose in the aftermath of the Abbasids’ period. The Sufi religious groups and brotherhoods were a kind of a non-traditional sect. Lots of people were converted to this sect by the Sufi missionaries in Africa Sahara Desert and Also Asia.
Due to common theological principles, conversion from other religions such as Christianity and Judaism was generally simple and swift. It was, however, not so easy to convert from these polytheistic and pagan beliefs. Sufi missionaries expertly negotiated these hurdles, integrating Islam with existing religious traditions to make it palatable.
This type of idea is very clear in the Sofi religious systems, which combine Islamic traditions with pre-Islamic belief systems. Kebatinan, for example, is a religion that emerged in modern-day Indonesia about the sixteenth century and mixed animistic, Buddhist, Hindu, and Islamic—especially Sufi—beliefs and rituals.
Muslim governance was no longer an Arab phenomenon by the late Abbasid period. In locations as far apart as modern-day Turkey and modern-day northern India, Muslim Kurdish, Persian, Turkish, Mongol, and Afghan leaders consolidated authority. Islam expanded to modern-day Malaysia and Indonesia from there.
Indeed, the contemporary Islamic world was created out of the later Persian Safavid and Turkish Ottoman empires, none of which were Arab.
Over the period of the Abbasid caliphate, how did the ethnic makeup of Muslim empires change?
What are some examples of how syncretic Islamic traditions arose?
The Islamic culture was not only spread by missionaries and political expansion, but also it was spread by trading. Traveling Caravans from one country to another, it was groups of merchants and adventurers along with missionaries that traveled overland on camels, were crucial to the spread of Islam. Caravans helped the Abbasids and other kingdoms to develop their civilizations and enrich their cultures by joining regions that were far apart, much as camels enabled the early caliphs to build their empires. Caravans carrying troops, pilgrims, envoys, merchants, and academics could travel over enormous swaths of land thanks to advanced road networks.
Merchant villages sprung up along these trading routes. Muslims had an influence on trans-Saharan commercial routes and controlled portions of the western silk path. They were also the main player in maritime commerce at the Gulf of Persia, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean.
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