Queen Cleopatra, the daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes. Was destine to be the final monarch of the Macedonian dynasty. That controlled Egypt from the time Alexander the Great died in 323 BCE until Rome annexed it in 30 BCE. General Ptolemy, who later became King Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt, established the lineage.
Although she was of Macedonian ancestry and had little to no Egyptian blood. Cleopatra claimed to be the new Isis for political reasons. Distinguishing herself from the earlier Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra III. Who had also asserted to be the living embodiment of the goddess Isis.
According to the Classical author Plutarch, she was the only member of her household to take the trouble to learn Egyptian. The countenance depicted in coin depictions of Cleopatra is alive rather than beautiful, with a soft lips, a firm chin, liquid eyes, a large forehead, and a prominent nose.
Ptolemy XII, the governing Ptolemaic pharaoh. And an unidentified mother, most likely Cleopatra VI Tryphaena . Mother of Queen Cleopatra’s older sister, Berenice IV Epiphaneia, had Cleopatra VII as their first child in early 69 BC.
Queen Cleopatra Marriage
It is plausible, but not proven, that Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII married soon after their father, Ptolemy XII, died in 51 BCE, and that Ptolemy XIII succeeded to the throne. Cleopatra, who was 18 years old and nearly 8 years older than her brother, rose to power. Evidence indicates that Ptolemy’s name initially appeared before Cleopatra’s in a decree in October of 50 BCE. Cleopatra was compile to leave Egypt for Syria shortly after that. where she amassed an army before travelling back to Pelusium, on Egypt’s eastern border, in 48 BCE to confront her brother.
In exchange for this, he wed Octavia, Octavian’s sister (Fulvia having died). After three years, Antony was certain that he and Octavian would never be able to reconcile. He went back to the east and met up with Queen Cleopatra because his marriage to Octavia was no longer relevant. Cleopatra demanded the restoration of a significant chunk of Egypt’s eastern kingdom, including significant portions of Syria and Lebanon and even the wealthy balsam orchards of Jericho in exchange for Antony’s financial assistance for his postponed Parthian invasion.
History and Reign
Both the Parthian campaign and Armenia’s brief dominion were costly failures. However, Antony celebrated a triumphant return to Alexandria in 34 BCE. The “Donations of Alexandria” festival took place after that. The Gymnasium was packed with spectators who came to watch Cleopatra and Antony seated on golden thrones on a silver podium. With their children next to them on slightly lower thrones.
Alexander Helios received Armenia and the region west of the Euphrates, while his little brother Ptolemy received the region east of the Euphrates. Cleopatra Selene, the sister of the lads, was to be in charge of Cyrene. Octavian, who was observing from Rome, could see that Antony wanted his extended family to dominate the developed world. It started a war of propaganda.
The Vestal Virgins temple, to whom Antony’s will had been entrusted. Was taken by Octavian, who then revealed to the Roman populace that Antony had not only given a foreign woman Roman possessions but also intended to be buried next to her in Egypt. The fast-growing rumor that Antony also intended to move the capital from Rome to Alexandria spread quickly.
The winter of 32–31 BCE that Antony and Cleopatra spent in Greece. After stripping Antony of his expected consulate for the coming year, the Roman Senate went on to declare war on Cleopatra. The naval Battle of Actium, which took place on September 2, 31 BCE, and saw Octavian take on Antony and Cleopatra’s combined forces, was a catastrophe for the Egyptians. Queen Cleopatra withdrew to her mausoleum as Antony left for his final battle after the couple fled to Egypt. When Antony learned that Cleopatra had not actually passed away, he stumbled over his sword.
He brought himself to Cleopatra’s hideaway as a final act of devotion and died there after pleading with her to reconcile with Octavian. After burying Antony, Cleopatra killed herself. Although the exact manner of her death is unknown, classical writers came to assume that she had used an asp symbol of divine royalty—to commit suicide. She had been Antony’s partner for eleven years and the queen for 22 years at the age of 39. As both of them had desired, they were laid to rest together, and the Roman Republic was also laid to rest with them.
Cleopatra through the ages
Even though many of Egypt’s many hundreds of queens were well-known within their own country, they were largely unknown abroad. The legends of the queens were forgotten. And their monuments were burial beneath Egypt’s sands. When the dynasty age came to an end and the hieroglyphic script was destroyed. Because Cleopatra lived in a time when literacy was widespread. And because of the impact of her deeds on the creation of the Roman Empire, her story must not be lost.
The future emperor Augustus, Octavian, was determined that he should be recognized as the legitimate ruler of Rome. He produced his own autobiography and censored Rome’s official documents to accomplish this. Cleopatra’s tale kept as a vital element of his since she had been crucial to his quest for power.
Facts about Queen Cleopatra
Was Cleopatra Egyptian Woman
Despite being of Macedonian Greek descent and having been born in Egypt. Queen Cleopatra was a descendant of Alexander the Great’s general Ptolemy I Soter. Ptolemy assumed control of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 B.C. and started a nearly three-century-long dynasty of Greek-speaking kings. Cleopatra was the first Ptolemaic ancestor to learn the language, although not being of Egyptian blood, and she absorbed many of the nation’s customs.
Queen and Production of Incest
Members of the Ptolemaic dynasty frequently married other family members in order to preserve the virginity of their bloodline. More than a dozen of Cleopatra’s ancestors were married to cousins or siblings, suggesting that her parents were likely brothers and sisters. Following this custom, Cleopatra eventually wed both of her young brothers, who served at various stages of her rule as her ceremonial partners and co-regents.
Murdering Three of Cleopatra’s Siblings
As common in Ptolemaic society as family marriages were power plays and murder plots, and Cleopatra and her siblings were no exception. Her first brother-husband, Ptolemy XIII. Expelled her from Egypt after she attempted to seize the kingdom alone, and the two eventually engaged in a civil war. She also planned the murder of her sister Arsinoe, whom she saw as a potential heir, in 41 B.C.
Reputation in History
Cleopatra frequently employed deft stagecraft to win over potential supporters. Cement her celestial reputation because she thought of herself as a living goddess.
She had a reputation for being dramatic. As evidenced by the arrival of Julius Caesar in Alexandria in 48 B.C. During her conflict with her brother Ptolemy XIII. Queen Cleopatra had herself covered in a carpet some historians claim it was a linen sack and smuggled into the Roman general’s private quarters because she knew Ptolemy’s forces would obstruct her attempts to meet with him. The young queen in her royal attire fascinated Caesar, and the two quickly grew to be allies and lovers.
Beginning in 46 B.C., Cleopatra moved to Rome to live with Julius Caesar, and her arrival seems to have created quite a commotion. She even traveled to the city with their lovechild, Caesarion, in tow. Caesar didn’t conceal the fact that she was his mistress. Many Romans were outraged when he erecte a gilde statue of her in the temple of Venus Genetrix.
After Caesar was fatally murdered in the Roman senate in 44 B.C. Cleopatra was compiled to leave Rome. But not before leaving her mark on the city.
According to the historian Joann Fletcher. so many Roman ladies adopted the ‘Cleopatra appearance,’ that their statues has often been mistaken for Cleopatra herself. Her unusual hairstyle and pearl jewelry became a fashion craze.
Cleopatra and Mark Antony
In 41 B.C., Cleopatra started her fabled romance with Roman general Mark Antony. They had a political component to their relationship—Antony required access to Egypt’s wealth and resources. While Cleopatra needed Antony to safeguard her throne and preserve Egypt’s independence. But they were also renowned for enjoying each other’s company. They allegedly spent the winter of 41–40 B.C. in Egypt living a life of luxury and excess. And even started their own drinking club called the “Inimitable Livers.” The organization held nightly feasts and wine-binges, and occasionally its members participated in elaborate games and competitions. According to legend, Antony and Cleopatra enjoyed playing practical jokes on Alexandrians while disguising themselves and exploring the city’s streets.
Queen Cleopatra Fleet in Battles
Eventually, Cleopatra wed Mark Antony, with whom she had three children. But their connection also caused a huge controversy in Rome. In order to depict Antony’s adversary Octavian as a traitor controlled by a cunning seductress, the latter deployed propaganda. As a result, the Roman Senate waged war on Cleopatra in 32 B.C. The following year. The legendary naval battle at Actium marked the conflict’s culmination. Several hundred Egyptian warships were personally escorted into the battle by Cleopatra alongside Antony’s fleet. But they were no match for Octavian’s navy. Cleopatra and Antony were forced to cut through the Roman line. And retreat to Egypt after the fight quickly turned into a rout.
The death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra, the final monarch of Ptolemaic Egypt, passed away at Alexandria when she was 39 years old on either August 10 or 12. Contrary to common perception, Cleopatra poisoned herself rather than permitting an asp (Egyptian cobra) to bite her.
According to the writers of the Roman era Strabo, Plutarch, and Cassius Dio. She may have also injected the poison using a pointed object like a hairpin. The veracity of historical accounts citing snakebite as the cause of death and whether or not she was killed. According to certain academic theories, her Roman adversary Octavian drove her to commit suicide in a way that she chose.
It is unknown where Cleopatra’s tomb is. It is known that Octavian let her and her husband. The general and statesman Mark Antony of Rome, to be buriel together. Properly after he killed himself with a sword.
Due to Cleopatra’s alliance with Antony. The father of three of her children, in this conflict. The final war of the Roman Republic between the two remaining triumvirs. Octavian and Antony was effectively put to an end by Cleopatra death.
Following their defeat at the 31 BC Battle of Actium in Roman Greece. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. following which Octavian attacked Egypt and routed its army. She killed herself in order to avoid the humiliation because it displayed as a prisoner in a Roman triumph honoring Octavian. Who would go on to become Rome’s first emperor and take the name Augustus in 27 BC. The rival successor to Julius Caesar, Cleopatra’s son Caesarion (also known as Ptolemy XV).