Muhammad Ali Pasha

Muhammad Ali Pasha

10 Facts About Muhammad Ali King of Egypt

Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, Macedonia (Greece), in 1769. His father was a trader and shipper of tobacco. Muhammad Ali joined his father’s tobacco business and ship leasing when he was ten years old. Additionally, he bravely took up his father’s command of the military irregulars. As a member of an Ottoman military division that traveled to Egypt to drive out the French, Ali returned to his native country after the Ottoman forces were routed at the Battle of Abukir in 1799. Get to know all the facts about Muhammad Ali Pasha, his family tree, biography, and his achievements

Muhammad Ali Ruler

A Brief History of Mohamed Ali’s Childhood

Mohammad Ali biography and family tree. He was the son of the city’s governor, from whom he received a lot of his early training. Ibrahim Agha was the local police commander when Mohammad Ali was still relatively young.

He was of Turkish descent, spoke Turkish, and had his education in an Ottoman Empire province in Europe. As a result, he brought with him political acumen developed during the century-long war between the three great empires over control of the Balkans. He was known as Mehmet Ali and, as a young man, worked briefly as a tobacconist before joining the Ottoman Army.

How Did Muhammad Ali Pasha Become the King Of Egypt?

Although he arrived in Egypt in 1800 as a Turkish army officer, he quickly rose to become its ruler. On the other hand, Muhammad Ali Pasha family tree and biography were not royal. Later on, he established a royal family and his descendants did so until Ahmed Fouad II, the last king of Egypt, abdicated his throne in 1952 by royal order No. 65-1952.

Muhammad Ali Army General

French Campaign

Egypt was an Ottoman province under the Mamluk administration in 1798. Napoleon, however, invaded Egypt that year and defeated the Mumluk army at the Battle of the Pyramids. A sea battle with the English off Egypt’s Mediterranean coast caused Napoleon to flee back to France, but his brief control of Egypt by the French had a profound impact on both the nation and Egyptology. A power vacuum resulted from some of his armed personnel remaining in the country to maintain its occupation before they too were quickly gone.

Along with Captain Hussein’s Army, Muhammad Ali Pasha returned to Egypt in March 1801 to assist the British in removing the French from Egypt. He took part in the conflicts between the French and the English as well as the Ottomans. They eventually drove the French out, and he became quite famous.
He received a promotion to Major General upon his withdrawal from the French war.

He was then proposed for the positions of chief of the general command and commander of the king’s palace guards.

Mamluks Failure

Mamluk remnants were unable to control, and when the troops’ salaries were delayed, many of them mutinied and began conducting raids on the local countryside that the dispersed . Subsequently, the Ottoman Sultan sent a military expedition to Egypt to reoccupy the land, but they were hampered by significant ethnic and political division within their ranks, which made them ineffective for a very long time.

Mamluks Vs Muhammad Ali

Muhammad Ali, a young officer in the expeditionary troops’ Albanian component at the time, was able to intervene and take control of this desperate circumstance. He belonged to the Ottoman soldiers that were still in control of Cairo at the time. Muhammad Ali pasha, however, frequently switched sides on his rise to the top, at times siding with the Mamluks against the Ottomans and at other times with the Ottomans. But he was aware that the Mamluks, who still controlled the country in a feudal manner, would have to be dealt with if he wished to dominate Egypt, which he accomplished. The fundamental source of wealth and power in Egypt continued to be the land. Napoleon had undergone a significant transformation, but not in that.

Taking Over Egypt

He was able to have himself appointed as the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt in 1805 by consolidating his dominance among Cairo’s wealthy merchants, clergy, and village leaders. Also, he managed to assassinate or expel three subsequent governors dispatched from Istanbul. He began his real campaign against the Mamluks in this year. The Mamluks had pushed their way into the city in an attempt to combat Muhammad Ali pasha, but his Albanians killed or captured most of them. The Mamluks had just suffered their first major setback.

But during this conflict, the Ottoman forces also pillaged Cairo, and the situation deteriorated to the point where the inhabitants rose up in revolt against the Ottoman governor. Muhammad Ali was the only apparent foe of both the Ottomans and the Mamluks. Despite his association with the Albanians who had taken part in the pillaging. As a result, he was “elected” Pasha almost by popular vote and went on to become viceroy even though he had started to see the nation as his own. He would rule Egypt till his passing away in 1849. However, Muhammad Ali achievements last till today in Egypt.

The Reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha

However, he fought to maintain his position of authority in Egypt for some time after that. He spent the first years extending his rule over all of Egypt while fending off attempts to remove him from power. In fact, the British, who were still in favour of Mamluk rule in Egypt, assaulted him at one point early in 1807, but he was cunning and his 5,000 Albanian soldiers, who were far superior soldiers than the Turkish Ottomans, destroyed the British. Because of this, he was mostly invulnerable, and by 1808, he had gained enough strength to take control of all of Egypt.

Getting Rid of Mamluks

But the Mamluks, a brutal group that had dominated Egypt for many years, were largely to blame for his early problems. After the British onslaught, their cause had already suffered a setback. By massacring the Mamluk commanders, Muhammad Ali ended the Mamluks’ dominance over Egypt once and for all, in one of the most notorious and brilliant episodes of his reign.

Five hundred of their amirs and leaders were invited to a feast in 1811 to celebrate the nomination of his son, Tusun Pasha, as commander of the army being dispatched against the Wahhabi uprising in Arabia. He had already worn down their forces after years of raids and conflicts. attacking them from above with huge walls. The Mamluks were so tightly packed together and below that they were unable to flee the ruthless fusillade that was raining down on them.

The Citadel Massacre 1811

Citadel masscareThe Mamluks, under Shahin Bey’s command, took part in the military procession honouring Muhammad Ali on March 1st, 1811, as one of the rearguard troops. As they rode out of the Citadel down the tiny, narrow hill to the gate of Azab that opened out into Roumaliya Square. The massive doors of the gate suddenly slammed shut in front of them, trapping them in a tight queue with high walls on either side and a detachment of Albanian soldiers behind them. Guards for Muhammad Ali mounted the gates as they closed.

Muhammad Ali’s Family

Muhammad Ali had a very large family that included numerous wives and mistresses. Ayn al Hayat, from whom he would father only one child, Mohammed Saiid, Namchaz, from whom he would father only one child, and Ziba Khadiga, from whom he would father one child, are among the wives that we are aware of. Amina Nosrati was his first wife and she was likely divorced. By her, he would father five children, including his successor Ibrahim, as well as two other sons and two daughters. However, there were numerous additional wives, mistresses, and kids. His family is, in fact, outside the focus of this piece.

After more than 147 years as the absolute monarch of Egypt, Muhammad Ali King and his family are still very much a part of contemporary Alexandria and its culture. All over the place, on roads, structures, and other architectural sites, are their names. Many people believe that Muhammad Ali Pasha founded modern-day Egypt.

Muhammad Ali Achievements

Egyptian Education

He developed a class of educated individuals and paid close attention to scientific endeavors. ElMohandes Khana School, Al-Alsun School, the accounting school, and the art and crafts school are just a few of the many institutions he founded. In Paris and Aswan, he founded the first Egyptian military schools, respectively. The education system in Egypt was one of the great achievements of Muhammad Ali.

He founded the Qasr El-Einy School of Medicine, the health council, the Schools of medicine and Pharmacy, the School of Obstetrics and Nursing, and other institutions. On the other hand, He also began administering the required immunization.


King Muhamad Ali divided up the agricultural fields among the farmers and abolished a compulsive system of land tenure. Similarly, Muhammad Ali introduced three different kinds of enterprises to Egypt: manufacturing, processing, and war production. He founded a stand-alone divan for Egyptian trade. The irrigation system in Egypt was one of the great achievements of Muhammad Ali.

Egyptian Cotton

Muhammad Ali was thus free to pursue a more beneficial agenda because of the terrible way that what was actually a brutal system came to an end. Mohammad Ali was responsible for making long-staple cotton popular around the world by establishing it as a commercial crop in Egypt. Perhaps more than any other factor, it enabled him to modernize Egypt, yet many years later, the collapse of the cotton market would also bring about the demise of his line of descendants. In fact, Muhammad Ali instructed most Egyptian peasants to grow cotton instead of any other crops.

The cotton would then be purchased by Mohammad Ali from these farmers, marked up, and sold to the textile companies. As a result, for many years, cotton cultivation served as a key economic driver for the state, and specifically for the royal treasury.

The Beginner Builder of Modern Egypt

In Addition, King Muhammad Ali improved the trading system by paving numerous highways and ports. Additionally, he founded the Bank of Alexandria.

Also, he constructed Muhammad Ali Mosque which er call now “The Alabaster Mosque” inside the Citadel of Saladin which is one of the best achievements of Muhammad Ali.

the citadel of Saladin

the citadel of Saladin

Modernize The Egyptian Army

As it does in more recent times and as it did under Mohammad Ali’s rule, modernization typically follows military spending. He understood that the kind of military forces he had once served in expeditionary recruits assigned to units based on shared ethnic or regional loyalty. In fact, this was not long-term reliable. He was able to see the French’s better fighting technique in the field because he had firsthand experience fighting the French in 1799. The close-order, well-trained musketry mixed with artillery and horse support that had easily overcome the less organized, more disorganized Mamluk forces in Egypt stood little chance against the Ottoman forces. Nizami Army was one of the great achievements of Muhammad Ali.

Muhammad Ali Army

Additionally, he was well aware of the inherent issues with military caste systems like the Mamluks or the Janissaries. Who frequently grew powerful enough to threaten their lords’ authority, and the European military model appeared to be a workable substitute. He might have also been influenced by Sultan Selim III’s earlier, albeit unsuccessful, attempt at military modernization. Sultan Selim III had assembled an army of disciplined soldiers in the manner of the European Union, under the command of a German general.

Muhammed Ali Army Battle

The new battle force of Muhammad Ali Pasha faced its first significant test in 1827. He deployed his Nizami forces to fight the Greeks in the Greek War of Independence at the behest of Sultan Mahmud the Second. His capable son Ibrahim Pasha oversaw them. This endeavor, however, did not go well for Muhammad Ali for reasons unrelated to his new military organization. Later on, it resulted in a disagreement between him and Sultan Mahmud II. Muhammad Ali pasha had also built up a navy, however, it had been expensive because most of the ships had to be imported.

In order to take on the Ottoman navy, Great Britain, France, and Russia all decided to support the Greek revolutionaries and assembled a sizable naval force at Navarino Bay. Muhammad Ali recognized the danger this created and begged the Sultan to arbitrate a deal that would grant Greece freedom. Muhammad Ali grudgingly deployed his navy against the European fleet because the Sultan would have none of that. The Ottoman fleet suffered a terrible defeat in the Battle of Navarino on October 20, 1827, when the majority of their ships were sunk after a few hours of combat. Muhammad Ali pasha would never again lead a significant military operation on behalf of the Sultan after that.

The Legacy of Muhamed Ali

Since it was now obvious that Muhammad Ali, viceroy of Egypt, intended to seize control of the entire Ottoman Empire. Mahmud Second accepted Russia’s offer of military assistance, much to the dismay of the British and French governments. In exchange for his departure from Anatolia, Muhammad Ali  pasha was given permission to keep the territories of Crete and the Hijaz under the terms of the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. Additionally, Ibrahim Pasha would be named the wali of Syria.

Muhammad Ali King of egypt
On September 2, 1848, Muhammad Ali became unwell. Later, Ibrahim Pasha was appointed as the new leader by an order from the royal palace. The death of Muhammad Ali pasha was on August 2, 1849.

Last King of Ali’s Family

After many years Muhammad Ali’s family ruled Egypt from 1805 till 1952. On July 26, 1952, the former monarch boarded his yacht, el Mahroussa, and sailed from Egypt to France. There will soon be only five kings left. The kings of England, Diamonds, Hearts, Spades, and Clubs, it is rumored that his father, King Farouk, once said.


Muhammad Ali is one of the best rulers since the Pharaohs even though he was not Egyptian. The Achievements of Muhammad Ali pasha is still here talking about him.


Related FAQ

What did Muhammad Ali Pasha do?

Mohamed Ali Modernased Egypt

He founded the first Egyptian military schools, respectively. Also, He founded the Qasr El-Einy School of Medicine, the health council, the schools of medicine and pharmacy, the school of obstetrics and nursing, and other institutions. He also began administering the required immunisation.

Was Muhammad Ali Pasha a good ruler?

Using his political savvy, leadership abilities, and cunning, he turned Egypt into a true superpower with significant influence at the time, bringing peace, wealth, and law and order.

What was the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha?

Time of Muhammad Ali

One of the most fascinating eras in modern Egyptian history may be found during Muhammad 'Ali's reign, which lasted from 1805 when the Ottoman sultan designated him as wali of Egypt until his resignation due to mental illness in 1848.

Who sent Muhammad Ali to Egypt?

Egypt, a semiautonomous province of the Ottoman Empire at the time, was taken over by a French force led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. As the second-in-command of a 300-man Albanian regiment dispatched by the Ottoman government to drive the French out of Egypt, Muhammad "Al" arrived there in 1801.

Who modernized Egypt?

The father of contemporary Egypt is recognised as being Mohammad Ali. He took advantage of the chaos in Egypt during the French occupation (1798–1801) to establish the Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan in 1805. His descendants governed Egypt until the Free Officers' Revolution in 1952.

How did Muhammad Ali help to industrialize Egypt?

Muhammad Ali Achievements

With his own land taxes, Ali took the role of tax farming. A portion of the profits thus obtained were used to fund manufacturing investments and the construction of irrigation canals. Additionally, Ali subsidised the domestic textile industry by providing flax and cotton to domestic textile manufacturing at those low purchase prices.

Why Muhammad Ali is known as the father of modern Egypt?

In fact, Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Khedivate in both Egypt and Sudan. His achievements in education, agriculture, and army building were very well noticed. This is the reason why many people call him the Fater of Modern Egypt.

Does Egypt still have royalty?

After the 1952 revolution, Egypt started to a republic and still up to 2023. The President of Egypt now is Abdel Fatah El Sisi.

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