King Tut (or Tutankhamun) governed Egypt for ten years as pharaoh until his early death at the age of 19 in the year 1324 B.C. Tutankhamun’s influence was largely nullified by his heirs, despite his administration being renowned for undoing his father’s chaotic religious changes. Until 1922, when British archaeologist Howard Carter chipped through a gateway and entered King Tut’s tomb, which had been sealed for more than 3,200 years, he was little known to the modern world. The tomb’s immense wealth of artifacts and riches, which were meant to follow the king into the hereafter, provided a lot of information about the life of royal kings and queens in ancient Egypt and immediately Tutankhamun’s tomb made him the most renowned pharaoh in the universe.
King Tut Names and Titles
Tutankhamun (flourished 14th century BCE), king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1333–23 BCE), is most remembered for his entire tomb, KV 62 (tomb 62), found in the Valley of the Kings in 1922. Under his rule, influential counselors reinstated ancient Egyptian religion and art, which had been suppressed by his predecessor Akhenaten, the leader of the “Amarna revolution.” (Take a look at Amarna’s style.)
Although a solitary black piece from Akhetaton (Tell el-Amarna), Akhenaten’s capital city, describes him as a king’s son in a setting similar to that of the princesses of Akhenaten, the parentage of Tutankhaten—as he was initially known—remains unknown. Tutankhaten’s mummy was compared to the mummy found in KV 55 (tomb 55) in the Valley of the Kings and found to have remarkably similar physical traits. Some experts believe the mummy is that of Smenkhkare; who appears to have served with Akhenaten in the closing years of rule; whereas others believe it is Akhenaten himself.
Tutankhamun Royal Lineage
King Tut was confirmed to be the grandson of the renowned pharaoh Amenhotep III and nearly likely the son of Akhenaten, a contentious character in Egypt’s New Kingdom’s 18th dynasty’s history (c.1550-1295 B.C.). Akhenaten shifted Egypt’s religious headquarters from Thebes to Amarna, uprooting a centuries-old religious structure in favor of worshipping a single deity, the sun god Aten. After Akhenaten’s death, two pharaohs reigned briefly until Tutankhaten, a 9-year-old boy, ascended to the throne.
Earlier in his rule over Egypt, Tutankhamun undid Akhenaten’s reforms, resurrecting Amun worship, restoring Thebes as a religious center, and modifying the end of his name to symbolize royal fealty to the creator deity Amun. He also collaborated with his strong counselors Horemheb and Ay, both future pharaohs, to reestablish Egypt’s position in the area.
King Tutankhamun Marriage
With the loss of Smenkhkare, Tutankhaten ascended to the throne and proposed to Akhenaten’s third daughter, Ankhesenpaaton (later known as Ankhesenamen), the royal family’s eldest surviving princess. Tutankhaten’s principal counselors were the old official Ay; who had long maintained links with the royal family, and the general of the forces, Horemheb, because he was still relatively young at the time of his ascension.
Tutankhaten had transferred his home from Tell el-Amarna to Memphis; the city of Memphis is now the administrative capital in modern-day Cairo, by his third regnal year. Tutankhamun was his new name, and he issued an edict that restored the ancient gods‘ temples, pictures, people, and privileges. He also started the long work of rebuilding Amon’s sacred sanctuaries, which had been badly destroyed during his father’s reign. The Aton, Akhenaten’s god, was not excommunicated or persecuted, and royal vineyards and army regiments were still named after him.
Tutankhamun’s main existing monument is the Colonnade of the Temple of Luxor; which he painted with reliefs showing the Opet festival, an annual ceremony of renewal involving the monarch, the three primary deities of Karnak (Amon, Mut, and Khons), and the local version of Amon at Luxor.
How Did King Tut Die?
King Tut’s death is the subject of several hypotheses. With a severe bone condition in his clubbed left foot, he was tall but fragile. He is the only pharaoh known to be represented sitting while participating in physical sports such as archery. The boy king’s bad health and early death were most likely caused by traditional inbreeding in the Egyptian royal dynasty. Tutankhamun’s parents were brother and sister, and his wife, Ankhesenamun, was his half-sister, according to DNA testing published in 2010. The couple’s only two daughters died in infancy.
Some historians assumed Tutankhamun was slain because his remains exhibited a hole in the back of his head, but new studies indicate the wound was created during mummification. In 1995, CT scans indicated that the king had a shattered left leg that was diseased, and DNA from his mummies revealed signs of several malaria illnesses, all of which might have resulted in his premature death.
Tutankhamun died suddenly when he was 19 years old. Scientists discovered signs of malaria parasites in his mummified bones in 2010; This led them to believe that malaria, together with degenerative bone disease, was the cause of death.
After King Tut Death
In any event, King Tut died without naming an heir, and Ay became his heir. In the Valley of the Kings, he was buried in a modest tomb that had been quickly altered for his use; (his intended sepulcher was probably taken over by Ay). He, like other monarchs linked with the Amarna period—Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, and Ay—would have his name omitted from succeeding king lists and his monuments seized, chiefly by his former commander, Horemheb, who would eventually become king.
However, there is proof that Tutankhamun’s tomb was discovered and briefly plundered, the nation has totally forgotten the place where he was buried by the time of the 20th dynasty (1190–1075 BCE), when craftsmen were scheduled to work on Ramses VI’s nearby tomb built transitory stone shelters effectively over its opening. The tomb remained hidden until 1922, when English archaeologist Howard Carter discovered it during a thorough examination of the Valley of the Kings.
Tutankhamun’s tomb was designed in the style of the eighteenth dynasty’s kings. A flight of steps leads to a small passage from the tomb’s main entrance. The antechamber is the first room, and it is here that many of Tutankhamun’s domestic belongings for his journey to eternity were discovered. An annex is attached to this room, and at the end is a door that leads to the burial chamber. Two black sentry-statues guarded this room, which symbolizes the royal ka (soul) and signifies the promise of rebirth — attributes that Osiris, who was reincarnated after he died, embodied.
Burial Chamber and Treasury Room
Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus and coffin are kept in the burial chamber. Tutankhamun’s ka in the presence of Osiris, the ceremony of “opening the mouth” to give life to the departed, the solar bark on which one goes to the afterlife, and Tutankhamun’s ka in the presence of Osiris adorn the walls.
The Treasury room, which is located off the burial chamber, has a stunning golden canopic shrine. This was the Treasury’s most outstanding item. Howard Carter describes what he witnessed the first time he entered the Treasury:
“On the other side of the entryway, facing the doorway, stood the most gorgeous monument I had ever seen – so lovely that it made one gasp with astonishment and appreciation. Its centerpiece was a massive shrine-shaped chest that was fully covered in gold and topped with a cornice of sacred cobras. Free-standing sculptures of the four tutelary goddesses of the deceased surrounded this – graceful figures with outstretched protective arms, so genuine and lifelike in their position, so sorrowful and compassionate in their expressions that looking at them seemed like sacrilege.”
Four canopic jars holding the dead pharaoh’s viscera were kept in a gilded chest (internal organs — lungs, stomach, intestines and liver). The sanctuary was guarded by four goddesses: Neith in the north, Selkis in the south, Isis in the west, and Nephthys in the east. Thirty-five model boats and a statue of Anubis, a divinity with the head of a jackal, were also discovered in this area. All of these artefacts have been relocated to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo for conservation purposes.
King Tut Mummy
King Tut was mummified after he died, in accordance with Egyptian religious custom; which stated that royal bodies should be maintained and nourished for the afterlife. Embalmers removed his organs and wrapped him in resin-soaked bandages; He was placed in a succession of nested vessels golden coffins, a granite sarcophagus, and four gilded wooden shrines, the biggest of which hardly fit inside the tomb’s chamber prepared for burial.
The king’s mummy was encased in a nest of three coffins; the innermost of solid gold and the two outermost of gold hammered over timber frames, within his little tomb. A spectacular golden portrait mask sat atop the king’s head, and the mummy and its wrappings were covered with jewelry and amulets. Four text-covered shrines of hammered gold over wood encircled the coffins and stone sarcophagus, effectively filling the burial room. Furniture was jammed into the other rooms. Tutankhamun, on the other hand, is possibly more recognized than any of his longer-lived and better-documented predecessors and successors because of his tomb. In the 1960s and 1970s, the hugely successful “Treasures of Tutankhamun” display toured the world, cementing his fame. The artifacts are still kept at Cairo’s Egyptian Museum.
King Tut Golden Mask
You’ve probably seen the Mask of Tutankhamun before; you could even have a Halloween mask of it. But do you know what it means, and why it’s so beautiful as art? Its complicated backstory is enthralling.
This is one of Egypt’s finest pieces of art, and it was found closest to the king’s mummified bones. It’s recognizable and has a lot of connotations. It was a holy artifact with a mission: to secure the king’s resurrection.
Egypt’s funeral art served a function other than remembering loved ones who had died. Their religion, the philosophy that backed royalty, and the reinforcement of society’s hierarchy all had a role in the art.
The images you see have a lot to say, providing us with a history of Egyptian governmental succession as well as artistic style and religious conviction. It’s astonishing how much information a single object can provide about a society. Let’s take a closer look at the mask to discover how the narrative starts and concludes.
King Tut Facial Features
You’re staring at a young man’s face. In actuality, he wasn’t much more than a little lad. Tutankhamun, sometimes known as “The Boy King,” died when he was roughly 19 years old. His skin is silky smooth and he has a heart-shaped face. He has a delicate chin that is small and tapered, wide almond eyes, and high cheekbones with rounded cheeks. His lips are large and sensual without being too so. Like a baby’s pucker, they’re almost bow-shaped and plump. The deep indentations at the end of his lips appear to give him a calm expression, nearly but not quite a grin.
No concerns, he doesn’t furrow his brow or line his eyes. The space between his nose and his lips, where the filtrum (the depression just above the upper lip) is sculpted; as well as the space between his lower lip and his chin, is extremely short. His nose is sharper and narrower than an adult man’s, with a thin bridge and broader end. It is inclined at a small angle from the sides.
These ratios are all typical of a youngster or a teen. They are, nevertheless, those of an intelligent, sensitive, and fine-boned adolescent. Tutankhamun’s look is misty and distant, similar to Khafre’s sculpture. He is flawless and motionless, with no flaws in his look. This is, in effect, the most everlasting, youthful, and healthy face you can make. It’s quite lovely. It’s also misleading.
Tutankhamun dressed as a King
However, the king’s genuine characteristics are only visible in this little section of his face and his golden ears. The rest of the mask, as well as the coffins in which he was buried, are adorned with items that underline his kingship. Much of this has remained largely unchanged in the two millennia since the Old Kingdom.
Tutankhamun, for example, wears the same nemes headcloth that Khafre and others used to denote monarchy. Tut’s headcloth is gold inlaid with blue paste stripes designed to imitate lapis lazuli and tied in the back, blending smoothly with his face. Tut also has a cloisonné fake beard set with blue in a herringbone pattern highlighted in gold, as is usual for monarchs.
The kingly uraeus is the snake Wadjet, symbolizing Lower Egypt, paired with the vulture Nekhbet, representing Upper Egypt, on his brow. The combination of the two represents his control over both lands. Narmer Palette’s message of the sovereignty of both sides of Egypt is surprisingly identical. Turquoise, carnelian, obsidian, and lapis lazuli are among the semi-precious stones and glass inlaid on the cobra and vulture.
Tut also wears an ornate wide collar with a gold falcon head, the Horus emblem, at each shoulder. The necklace’s rows are made up of lapis, quartz, amazonite, and colored glass. The contrast between the curved striped collar and the rhythmically striped nemes is both appealing and complicated. This mask is complete in and of itself, and the broad collar serves to tastefully terminate it.
How Did Tutankhamun’s Mummy Remain Intact Inside the Tomb?
Egyptians used to bury their deceased in tombs made of dry bricks dating back to prehistoric times. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, finding an undamaged tomb, much alone a royal tomb, was a difficult undertaking. It took a lot of effort, expertise, and determination. Tutankhamun, Egypt’s boy-king, is buried in one of the most famous tombs. Many archaeologists and historians were fascinated by the valuables found in Tutankhamun’s tomb. One theory about Tutankhamun’s death is that he was killed rather than dying of natural causes.
Archaeologists were able to determine Tutankhamun’s age because to the finding of his mummy. Tutankhamun was said to have died when he was about 18 years old. Archaeologists might have arrived at this result in a number of ways. Checking when the molars erupted was one of the methods. The epiphyses, which are the ends of the bones, were another method to learn. The epiphyses, the extremities of one’s long bones, one’s thighs, and one’s arms stiffen as one grows older. They stop being cartilage and start acting like true bones. Tutankhamun was around 18 years old when he died, according to archaeologists.
Things Learned from Tutankhamun’s Mummy
Of course, the things in Tutankhamun’s tomb provide insight into his life. Archaeologists discovered a chest containing magnificent jars with Tutankhamun’s lids that housed his mummified inside parts. His internal organs were removed from his mummies and placed in tiny coffins in order to preserve them. However, as archaeologists began exploring other areas of King Tut’s tomb; they discovered two little coffins, each approximately two feet high or less.
When one of the coffins was uncovered, another little casket was discovered within, which had been carefully kept. Inside was what appeared to be a little bundle, with a miniature mummy in each of the two. These were two human embryos, one around eight months old and the other approximately five months old. Tutankhamun’s young wife, Ankhesenamen, was most likely pregnant at the time. This was proof that the royal couple attempted to produce children, but that none of them survived. These little fetuses had been missing for years before being discovered at Cairo’s Kasr el Einy Hospital.
The mummy of Tutankhamun is still in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Archaeologists opted to leave his mummy in the tomb since it was the only one ever discovered intact. As a result, Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings remains undiscovered.
Where Is King Tut Now?
Several blockbuster museum displays featuring artifacts from King Tut’s tomb have toured the world; notably the international “Treasures of Tutankhamun” exhibitions from 1972 to 1979. The display of the golden burial mask and 50 other priceless treasures from the tomb drew eight million people from seven different cities throughout the United States. The most valuable antiquities, such as the burial mask, are no longer exported from Egypt. Tutankhamun’s mummy is still on exhibit in the KV62 chamber in the Valley of the Kings, where his stacked coffins have been replaced with a climate-controlled glass case. His golden mask is on display in Cairo’s Egyptian Museum; but the Tutankhamun collection will eventually be relocated to the Grand Egyptian Museum, or GEM, which is set to open in 2022.
Will King Tut’s Mummy be exhibited in the Grand Egyptian Museum?
The Grand Egyptian Museum, the world’s largest archaeological museum, is set to open in November 2022, and the entire world is looking forward to it.
The Grand Egyptian Museum will store about 50,000 antiquities; including all of King Tutankhamun’s personal belongings, which will be shown for the first time in one spot.
However, one mystery remains: will the museum’s collection of King Tutankhamun’s possessions contain his mummy? The Supreme Council of Antiquities secretary general, Mostafa Waziri, responds.
The relocation of King Tutankhamun’s mummy, which is located in grave 62 in Luxor’s Valley of the Kings, would be decided by a big committee that comprises specialist experts and scientists, according to Waziri.
The choice over whether to retain the body in the cemetery or move it to the Grand Egyptian Museum for display is largely based on the response to the question; “What is safer for the mummy?”
Furthermore, Waziri stated that the museum’s complete building work has achieved 97 percent completion.
“To emphasize the project’s difficulties, we must state that the remaining work is covered by more than 80 Egyptian and foreign firms and specialists.” The Grand Egyptian Museum project involves forty-six to fifty nations. “There is no country in the globe that did not contribute to the project; whether with labor, engineers, or raw materials,” Waziri remarked.
“Fifty-five pieces have been put on the Great Staircase, which will feature around 72 pieces of the most important and greatest Egyptian monuments of the ancient kings of Egypt,”; Waziri said of the Grand Egyptian Museum’s Grand Lobby. The bases are being finished, and lighting tests are being conducted in the stairwell so that the artifacts may be seen properly.”
Curse of the Pharaohs and King Tut Tomb
What if I told you that Carter’s sponsor, Lord Carnarvon, died four months after first visiting the tomb of Tutankhamun, prompting media to coin the phrase “Curse of the Pharaohs,” saying that hieroglyphs on the tomb walls warned anybody who disturbed King Tut would die quickly. The curse has been blamed for more than a dozen deaths; but tests have proven that individuals who visited King Tut’s tomb survived almost as long as those who did not get there.
Important Facts about King Tut
1- The Golden Boy’s life was too short to get such huge fame!
2- Definitely there was a conspiracy to get rid of him.
3- In 2010 Scientists discovered signs of malaria parasites in his mummified bones.
4- Because of the modest size of his tomb, historians believe King Tut’s death was unforeseen and his grave hastened by Ay, his successor as pharaoh.
5- More than 5,000 objects were crammed inside the tomb’s antechambers, including furniture, chariots, clothing, weaponry, and 130 of the lame king’s walking sticks.
6- The entry passage appears to have been robbed shortly after the burial, while the interior rooms remained locked.
7- The pharaohs who succeeded Tut opted to disregard his rule because, despite his efforts to restore Amun, he was tarnished by his father’s religious upheavals.
8- King Tut tomb’s entrance had been choked with stone rubble, covered over by workmen’s cottages, and forgotten within a few centuries.
9- Carter and his colleagues spent a decade cataloging and emptying Tutankhamun’s tomb.
10- The curse of the pharaohs might be real.