King Ramses II
He was the son of king Seti I and queen Tuya. He married from Queen Nefertari she was a chief wife and most beloved wife . After her death, he married Istnofrt.
The number of women and offspring this great pharaoh had are also remembered. Although historians are unable to pinpoint a precise figure, they believe it to be close to 162 kids.
Amun-her-khepeshef (Nefertari’s firstborn), Ramesses, Merneptah, Meritamen, Nebettawy, Khaemweset, and many others are just a few of the known children. In actuality, his third son, not his first, was his immediate successor. Ramses was king for 66 years, which was longer than many of his children. His 13th son Merneptah emerged as the future heir apparent.
He was 60 years old as well. Around 1303 BC, Ramses II was born in a lower-class Egyptian family. Ramses was named in honour of his grandfather Ramses I, who transformed their ordinary family into royalty by Ramses was raised in the royal court of Egypt where he was educated and trained by his father.
He was blessed with this privilege because his father had become Pharaoh when Ramses was only 5 years old. At that time, Ramses had an older brother who was in line to become the next Pharaoh. However, he died when Ramses was around 14 years old.
Therefore, Ramses II was declared second-in-command during his father’s military campaigns and stood directly in line to become the Pharaoh of Egypt.
After his father death
Ramses was just 25 years old when he became the Pharaoh of Egypt in 1279 BC, following the death of his father. He is renowned for having outstanding control over the Egyptian army. As a result, he was able to command ferocious fights to defend Egypt’s boundaries against the Hittites, Nubians, and Syrians. Ramses defeated the Sherden sea pirates, who posed a serious danger to Ancient Egypt’s maritime trade, in 1281 BC. (Grimal, 1992, pp. 250–253) Ramses vowed to put a stop to it with chivalrous behaviour and a sound strategic strategy. He positioned ships and troops at strategic coastal locations while anxiously anticipating a pirate attack. They were deftly taken by surprise in a violent naval battle as their boats got closer.
Battle against Sherden sea pirates
By targeting cargo-laden ships travelling the maritime routes to Egypt, Ramesses II successfully fought off the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt’s Mediterranean coast in his second year. The Sherden people most likely originated in southwest Anatolia, around the coast of Ionia, or perhaps even on the island of Sardinia.
Ramesses calmly waited for the pirates to assault their presumed victim while stationing troops and ships at strategic spots along the coast before skillfully taking them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all at once.
They arrived “in their warships from the middle of the sea, and none were able to stand before them,” according to a Tanis stele. Many Sherden are soon seen among the pharaoh’s bodyguard, where they are distinguishable by their round shields, the large Naue II swords they are depicted with in inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh, and their horned helmets with a ball projecting from the middle. There was likely a naval battle somewhere near the mouth of the Nile.  Along with the Sherden, the Lukka (L’kkw, presumably the ancestors of the Lycians) and the qrsw (Shekelesh) peoples were also vanquished by the pharaoh in that sea war.
First Syrian campaign
African inmates in Abu Simbel’s temple. Around 1250 BC. A relief of Ramses II from Memphis depicts him capturing three enemies. Nubian, Libyan, and Syrian. Egyptian Museum. The early campaigns into Canaan by Ramesses II were the direct precursors of the Battle of Kadesh. His first campaign appears to have occurred in the fourth year of his reign, and to honour it, the first of the Nahr el-Kalb commemorative stelae was built close to modern-day Beirut.
Due to deterioration, the inscription is nearly completely unreadable. During his campaign in Syria in the fourth year of his rule, he conquered the Hittite vassal kingdom of the Amurru.
Battle of Kadesh
The culmination of Ramesses’ campaign in Syria against Muwatallis’ resurgent Hittite army came at the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth year as king. The pharaoh desired success at Kadesh in order to extend Egypt’s borders into Syria and to follow in the footsteps of his father Seti I. Who had made a triumphant entry into the city around ten years previously.
He also built Pi-Ramesses, his new capital. He constructed factories to produce weapons, chariots, and shields there, claiming to be able to produce 1,000 weapons per week, 250 chariots every two weeks, and 1,000 shields per week and a half. Ramesses decided to invade territory in the Levant that belonged to a more powerful foe than any he had ever encountered after making these preparations. The Hittite Empire When Ramesses’ army counterattacked and routed the Hittites at Kadesh.
The survivors abandoned their chariots and swam the Orontes river to reach the secure city walls. The Hittites were caught in an ambush and outnumbered by Ramesses’ forces. Ramesses left Egypt because he couldn’t logistically hold out for a protracted siege.
Third Syrian campaign
Egypt’s authority was now limited to Canaan, while Syria was captured by the Hittites. Canaanite princes started uprisings against Egypt, allegedly encouraged by the Egyptians’ inability to impose their will and provoked by the Hittites. Ramesses II visited Syria once more in the sixth year of his reign. He was more effective this time against his Hittite adversaries.
He divided his army into two forces to fight in this campaign. His son Amun-her-khepeshef led one troop that pursued Hasu warriors over the Negev all the way to the Dead Sea and captured Edom-Seir. Then it moved on to seize MoabThe opposing force, under the command of Ramesses, invaded Jericho and Jerusalem. Then he joined his son in Moab and went there himself. After that, the combined force advanced on Hesbon, Damascus, Kumidi, and finally, recovered Upi (the region surrounding Damascus), reestablishing Egypt’s old area of influence.
Peace treaty with the Hittites
When Ramses II denied having any knowledge of Mursili’s presence in his nation and the two empires drew dangerously near to war, this demand led to a crisis in ties between Egypt and Hatti. The conflict finally resolved by Ramesses and the new Hittite ruler, Attuili III. At Kadesh in the twenty-first year of his rule (1258 BC). The resulting document is the world’s first known peace pact.
Ramesses II and Attuili III signed the agreement in year 21 of Ramesses’ rule (c. 1258 BC).Its 18 articles demand peace between Egypt and Hatti before continuing to argue that peace is also required by each nation’s separate gods.
Although the treaty does not define the borders, it can be assumed from other papers. Italy’s Anastasy A papyrus lists and names the Phoenician coastal towns under Egyptian rule and describes Canaan in the last years of Ramesses II’s rule. The port town of Sumur, which located north of Byblos, is cited as being Egypt’s farthest northern settlement, indicating that it once housed an Egyptian garrison. After the peace pact is signed, no more Egyptian campaigns in Canaan are documented. Up to the death of Ramesses II and the waning of the dynasty, the northern border appears to have been safe and peaceful, indicating that the pharaoh’s reign was strong.
The Egyptian retorted that the days of scheming in behalf of Mursili III had passed when the King of Mira tried to enlist Ramses in a hostile act against the Hittites.
Attuili III reminded Kadashman-Enlil II. He Kassite king of Kardunia (Babylon), of the time when his father, Kadashman-Turgu, had offered to battle Ramesses II the king of Egypt in the same manner.
The Hittite king encouraged the Babylonian to fight against a different. Who was probably the king of Assyria, whose allies had killed the Egyptian king’s messenger. Attuili urged Kadashman-Enlil to assist him and stop the Assyrians from severing the connection between the Ramesses-allied Mursili III and the Canaanite province of Egypt.
Campaigns in Nubia
Originally from Nubia, the Gerf Hussein Temple is part of it. Ramses II also conducted military operations in Nubia, south of the first cataract of the Nile. Two of Ramesses’ sons. Including Amun-her-khepeshef. Joined him in at least one of those campaigns when he was about 22 years old. Nubia had been a colony for 200 years by the time.
Ramesses II built the temples at Gerf Hussein, Kalabsha, and Beit el-Wali in northern Nubia. The temple at Beit el-Wali was the focus of epigraphic research by the Oriental Institute during the Nubian salvage campaign in the 1960s.
Ramesses II is portrayer riding a war chariot into combat against tribes south of Egypt on the south wall of the Beit el-Wali templeAmun-her-khepsef and Khaemwaset, his two young sons, are pictured behind him, both riding in war chariots. Ramesses reportedly had to engage those tribes in combat alone once, according to a wall in one of his temples.
Campaigns in Libya
At least as far as Zawyet Umm El Rakham. Where remains of a stronghold indicated in its writings as being erected on Libyan soil. The Egyptians were evidently active along a 300-kilometer (190 mi) stretch of the Mediterranean coast during the time of Ramesses II.
Although the precise circumstances underlying the establishment of the coastal forts and strongholds are unclear. Ramesses II engaged in extensive military operations against the Libyans, but there are no explicit descriptions of these operations; instead.
There are only broad narratives of his conquest and crushing of the Libyans. Which may or may not make particular references to previously unknown events. It’s possible that some of the documents. Like the Aswan Stele from his second year. Refer to Ramesses’ participation in his father’s Libyan expeditions. Perhaps Seti I established this alleged control over the area and intended to build the defensive system in a manner. Similar to how he rebuilt the Ways of Horus across Northern Sinai in the region to the east.
He built Luxor temple to record his divine birth. And complete the temple of his father at Abydos. He made two colossi statues for himself, Also built Two temples at Noubia. The Southern one for himself, And the Northern one for his wife to show how he loves her.
Other Nubian monuments
He built Ramesseum
Tomb of king RamsesII
Tomb of king RamsesII have number (K.V 11). It was once more relocated, this time to the high priest Pinedjem II’s tomb, 72 hours later. The writing in his tomb was write in hieroglyphics, On the cloth that covered Ramesses II’s coffin’s remains.
His tomb was find inside a common wooden coffin. Now housed in Cairo’s National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (Until 3 April 2021 it was in the Egyptian Museum).