King Ramesses III
Family of King Ramesses III
His immediate predecessor, Setnakhte, a very obscure pharaoh, was the father of Ramesses III. He was the founder of the 20th Dynasty, according to Egyptologists, however he may have actually been a grandson of the illustrious Ramesses II. We assume that Ramesses III shared a brief co-regency with him because a rock chapel close to Deir el-Medina was dedicat to both his father and Ramesses III. Queen Tiy-merenese was the mother of Ramesses III. He had several wives, including Isis, Titi, and Tiy, and many sons, including the three future pharaohs of Egypt, Ramesses IV, V, and VI. Titi is the only possible daughter that we are aware of. The Great Harris Papyrus claims that his reign lasted for around 31 years and 41 days, although little is know about the royal family.
We are aware that his wife Isis’s mother, Habadjilat, was most likely a foreigner, most likely of Asian descent. Although her name was delete from the cartouches in the Medinet Habu temple, where the queen’s name would typically have appeared, she was buried in tomb QV51 in the Valley of the Queens. But one of her sons would go on to become Ramesses VI, the last Pharaoh of Egypt. Queen Titi, who was burial at QV52 in the Valley of the Queens, was a potential candidate for Ramesses III’s queenship. Despite the size of this tomb, there is no clear proof of her actual royal status there.
Her titles, however, imply that she was potentially Ramesses III’s daughter and afterwards his wife. She most likely outlived him. In this tomb, she is referred to as “Mistress of the Two Lands” 43 times, and “Chief Royal Wife” 33 times. Other names include “King’s Sister. His Beloved Daughter,” “King’s Daughter,” and “King’s Beloved Daughter of his Body.” She is also referred to as the “King’s Mother” eight times, and Ramesses IV could have been her son.
Ramesses III had at least 10 sons, if not more, and several of them predeceased him. They were all interred in the Valley of the Queens. Amenhirkhopshef (QV55), Khaemwaset (QV44), Parahirenemef (QV42), and Sethirkhopshef are among them (QV43). Prior to their deaths, each of these boys occupied important roles, as might be expect. Ramesses III, who was ostensibly dedicated to Ramesses II, gave his sons names that corresponded to those of the preceding king’s sons. His son Khaemwaset , who was called after the well-known child of Ramesses II, is one particularly notable case. He accepted the same position as sem-priest of Ptah in Memphis as the previous Khaemwaset. Although Khaemwasret . never attained the fame of the son of Ramesses II, who became the High Priest. We also know that Sethirkhopshef and Amenhirkhopshef served as the Master of Horses, both of whom were named after Ramesses II’s eldest son.
Other graves in the Valley of the Queens, which appear to date from Ramesses III’s reign, appear to belong to unidentified princes and princesses, however we know very little about them.
The Military Affairs
Ramesses III worked to solidify the empire his father had created after problems in the late 19th Dynasty. He ruled pretty calmly at first. At this time, Nubia appears to have only been a peaceful colony to the south. In his fifth year in reign, to his dismay, Libyans attacked Egypt. Reportedly for the first time since Merenptah had to cope with them in the 19th Dynasty. Two further ethnic groups that were a part of the army that invaded Libya were the Mshwesh and the Seped. Ramesses III quickly eliminated this menace, killing many and making the remaining into slaves. While the Libyan population of the western Delta continued to increase by peaceful infiltration (as they had done before the invasion) and would later serve as the foundation for a succession of monarchs who would eventually control Egypt, this forceful action at least temporarily held other opponents at away.
Ramesses III had to face with a force by his ninth year in power that was so potent that it at least devastated the Hittite empire and caused havoc throughout the entire region, though we really don’t know where it came from. The Hittites created a camp in southern Syria after their homeland, as well as Qode, Carchemesh, Arzawa, and Cyprus, were all destroyed. The islands were plotted against by the foreign countries, and the territories were displaced and dispersed in a single battle. They wiped out its populace and rendered the soil useless. They pushed on into Egypt while carrying fore. The Cypriot capital, Enkomi, had indeed been pillaged and taken over. In addition to the Hattusas, the capital of the Hittites, they destroyed a number of other empires. They took Tarsus, fled to the northern Syrian Cilician lowlands, and devastated Alalakh and Ugarit.
Camping of King Ramesses III
This chaos was caused by a race of humans known as the Sea People, who had been driven from their homes by as-yet-unknown events. However, a great number of people over a long length of time, including the Peleset (Philistines), Tjeker, Shekelesh (perhaps Sikels from Sicily), Weshesh, and the Denyen or Dardany, who could have been the Danaoi from Homer’s Iliad, all appear to have taken part in this. Because numerous of Ramesses III’s forebears, most notably Merenptah, had to deal with analogous groups of people, it appears that these people invaded various parts of the Middle East in wavesHe had a mural of his conflict with the Sea People painted on the outside of the Second Pylon, on the north side of Ramesses III’s tomb temple at Medinet Habu.
The lengthiest known hieroglyphic inscription. On the exterior north wall of the actual temple. He had etched images depicting the conflict. The Sea People are think to have spent some time in Syria before travelling across land into Egypt. It wasn’t only a military effort, either. They were accompanied by the Sea People’s females and little ones. along with their heavy ox-cart-laden belongings. Also had a fleet at sea, which appeared to communicate regularly with those on land. They intended to relocate to Egypt.
Ramesses responded quickly to this danger, sparing Egypt, at least temporarily, from the disaster that would strike other nations. He immediately sent squads of soldiers to the eastern Egyptian frontier at Djahy (possibly the Egyptian garrison in the Gaza Strip in southern Palestine) with instructions to maintain their position until the main Egyptian army arrived. Once deployed, as shown in the reliefs at Medinet Habu, the Egyptian army had no trouble eliminating their adversaries. The maritime fleet, however, needed to be take into account.
Egypt’s navy, which was primarily made up of infantry, including archers who were give specialised marine training, was never particularly well-know. But they detested the Mediterranean Sea, which they referred to as the “Great Green” and went by the name wdj wr. But the Egyptian fleet did arrive as the Sea Peoples’ fleet approached the entrance of one of the eastern arms of the Nile.
Egyptian marine archers quietly stood on the decks of their ships and fired in synchrony as the Egyptian fleet moved the Sea Peoples’ boats towards shore, where land-based Egyptian archers were ready to launch volley after volley of arrows into the enemy shipsBy the mercy of the god Amun. The adversaries fell lifeless into the water under the onslaught of the unified Egyptian forces as the Egyptian ships hurled grappling hooks into the Sea People’s ships. In fact, this triumph greatly increased respect for Thebes’ Amun priesthood. Although there is no evidence of an effort to pursue the evading Sea People as they made their way back to the Levant, it is conceivable that there was one.
Reign of King Ramesses III
As a result, for almost three years, everything was fine and Egypt was largely at peace. Then, in Ramesses III’s eleventh year as king, the Libyans, along with the Meshwesh and five other tribes, launched another full-scale assault after a gradual infiltration by immigrants into the region west of the Canopic arm of the Nile from Egypt’s western boundary. Ramesses III repelled the attack once more, decimating these adversaries as well. Cattle and other items taken from the defeat foe after the fight were send south to Amun’s treasury as spoils. The First Pylon at Medinet Habu’s inner, north wall contains information about this conflict.
Although some of the episodes depicted on the walls of Ramesses III’s funerary temple are dispute, there were apparently further expeditions during his reign. In fact, some of these Medinet Habu war scenes blatantly resemble earlier conflicts conducted by his legendary forebear Ramesses II.
Although they appeared to be minor, it does appear that there were additional disputes, especially with people from the desert region near Thebes.
Achievements of king Ramesses III
Ramesses III kept up a variety of commercial ties with foreign nations, most notably with Punt, a former trading partner. Since Hatshepsut’s renowned travels in the 18th Dynasty, this might have been Egypt’s first contact with that area. In addition, it appears that he sent an expedition to Atika, where Timna’s copper mines were located. It is commonly know that the king’s domestic construction programme strengthen law and order (as well as a tree-planting program). At the end of the 19th Dynasty, considerable corruption. And other abuses drove Ramesses III to inspect and remodel the numerous temples across the country. According to the Great Harris Papyrus.
Ramesses III gave significant land concessions to the most important temples in Thebes, Memphis, and Heliopolis. In fact, by the end of his reign, the temples controlled a third of the arable land. With Thebes’ Temple of Amun owning three quarters of this. Ramesses III constructed two new, smaller temples at Karnak, one of which was dedicate to the moon god Khonsu.
However, the mortuary temple at Medinet Habu. Which was finish in probably the 12th year of his reign, is his most illustrious structure. Numerous cities, including Piramesses (or Pi-Ramesses, modern Qantir). Atribis (Tell Atrib), Heliopolis, Memphis, Hermopolis (Ashmunein), Syut (Greek Lycopolis, modern Asyut), Abydos, and Edfu, saw additional building. For many years, there were two viziers in Egypt. One in charge of Upper Egypt and the other of Lower Egypt. There appears to have been a problem, possibly even a revolt, with the unnamed Lower Egyptian vizier. Which led Ramesses III to combine this crucial office under the control of one person named To (Ta).
The Death of Ramesses III
So how was the death of Ramesses III?King Ramesses III undoubtedly died during the trial of the harem conspirators, while the precise reason for his demise is unknown. While some experts believe the conspirators were responsible for his death, others maintain there was no relation to the plot. Whatever the case, his demise portended the end of the New Kingdom and even Egypt’s preeminent position in the world.
King Ramesses III Tomb
He was burial in a large tomb (K V 11) in the Valley of the Kings. On the West Bank, in ancient Theba (modern Luxor ). His tomb is particularly renown for a painting of two blind male harpists. Which is unusual for royal tombs because it shows a non-royal setting. Due to this, although though it is occasionally call “Bruce’s Tomb” after its discoverer James Bruce in 1769. It is more frequently call “The Tomb of the Harper” in literature. It is believe that his son Ramesses IV succeed him in or close to the year 1151 BC.