King Mena is another name for King Narmer. He was Egypt’s first king. Early Dynastic Period pharaoh Narmer was from ancient Egypt. He was the Protodynastic king Ka’s replacement. He is widely regard as the first monarch of a united Egypt as well as the founder of the First Dynasty by many academics.
10 facts about king Narmer
Narmer Was (Probably) the First Egyptian Pharaoh
The so-called Palermo Stone, a black granite slab inscribed with the names of Egypt’s rulers up to the 5th Dynasty, is the primary source for information on early Egyptian kingship. Additionally, it includes year-by-year records of the annual flood’s height, information about the festivals that were held that year, and other significant yearly events like battles and construction. Only a few bits, sadly, have been preserved, they are now kept in Palermo, Italy; Cairo, Egypt; and London, Britain.
The area of the stone where the first king of the first Dynasty’s name is inscribed has been lost. Although it is generally acknowledged that the first monarch was Narmer and the second one was Aha, so is his successor. There is general agreement among Egyptologists that Narmer was the first dynasty’s founder, although disagreements occasionally occur because, despite this theory being the most plausible, there is just not enough evidence to prove it beyond a reasonable doubt.
King Narmer Name Literally Means Chisel-Fish
The writing system used by the ancient Egyptians was ideographic, meaning that drawings could be interpret as both thoughts and phonemes. We may recognise the king by the engraving of a chisel and a catfish next to his likeness in the renowned Narmer palette. However, in Egypt, the term and the individual were one and the same. As a result, in other representations, like a cylindrical ivory seal discovered in Abydos, King Narmer is depicted as a catfish battling Egypt’s foes. There is a hieroglyph of a chisel directly behind the fish grasping a spear, enabling the identification of the Egyptian pharaoh.
King Narmer Body Was Never Found
For more than two centuries, archaeologists have been unable to find Narmer’s body. The ancient Egyptian pharaohs constructed a mudbrick construction known as a mastaba, which takes its name from the Arabic word for bench. Until the end of the Third Dynasty, when they began to construct pyramids, every monarch during the Old Kingdom was interred inside a mastaba. Thus, it was hypothesis that Narmer was interred in one of the numerous mastabas in the Saqqara mastaba fields. However, it was never verified because there are none that go by the name of Narmer.
Later, in Umm el-Qaab, a location close to Abydos, Egyptologists found a sizable field of Predynastic and Early Dynastic royal tombs. The name of Narmer was reveal in an inscription discovered near Umm el-Qaab in 1964 by Professor Werner Kaiser of the German Archeological Institute in Cairo. The exact location of Narmer’s tomb couldn’t be determined due to the site’s extensive disruptions and tomb-robbing during the previous 5,000 years, which led to the discovery of objects bearing the name of Narmer all over the place. Both archaeologists and Egyptologists differ as to whether Narmer was interred in Umm el-Qaab or Saqqara, and this disagreement will undoubtedly continue as long as the Egyptian royal’s body is missing.
The Greeks called King Narmer Menes
The identity of Menes and Narmer has not been established in any way. In fact, there seems to be disagreement among scholars on this. The fact is that Menes was the first of the Egyptian kings to be recorded when the Greek historian Herodotus visited Egypt in around 445 BCE. Herodotus’ Histories include no mention of a Narmer, hence it stands to reason that Menes and Narmer were the same people. The issue is that Narmer/Menes lived some 2,500 years after Herodotus entered Egypt during the Late Period of Egypt. Additionally, Egyptian pharaohs had a variety of monikers throughout their reign.
Narmer and Menes, according to the famous Egyptologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie, are simply two names for the same individual. His birth name had been Narmer, and Menes had been a title. In the third century BCE, a Greek-speaking priest named Manetho who was born in Egypt while it was ruled by the Greeks wrote his Aegyptiaca (the History of Egypt). He asserted that Menes was the name of the very first king of Egypt, who is said to have formed the 1st Dynasty after uniting Egypt approximately 3,200 BCE. Herodotus and Manetho disagree about the date, the year, and the names of his successors, but they agree that he was the first king and how he passed away.
The First Egyptian Pharaoh Was Kill by a Hippopotamus
The most hazardous mammal in the world has always been and continues to be hippopotamuses. To establish their authority, Egyptian monarchs frequently portrayed themselves engaging in battle with these majestic creatures. It is likely that the early kings actually needed to go on a hunt to convince their citizens that they were deserving of their support and taxes, even though subsequent pharaohs did not go in hunts of this kind. The conclusion of Manetho’s chronicle of Menes’ reign reads, “He was carried off by a hippopotamus and drowned,” for this reason. An Egyptian king would not consider it embarrassing to be killed by a noble beast. Egyptians, however, never discussed the goals of their leaders verbally or in writing. So a Greek priest could only record it during the Hellenistic Period. That is how we learned about Narmer’s passing.
King Narmer Imposed the Pharaoh’s Fashion
Egyptian pharaohs appear in depictions with a number of defining attributes. A later addition was the uraeus, a golden cobra that they wore as a tiara. Predynastic Egyptian kings previously wore the crimson crown of Lower Egypt and the white crown of Upper Egypt. However, Narmer was the first to be depict with two crowns (symbolising the unity of Lower and Upper Egypt) and the rest of these distinguishing regal characteristics. He was depicted in the renowned Narmer palette sporting the bull’s (later, a dog’s) tail, which represent the power required to control the Nile region.
He also dons the shendyt, a type of kilt or loincloth that is common among the aristocracy. The sandals of the Egyptian pharaoh served as their only link to the country of Egypt and, appropriately, represented the marriage of heaven, the world of the gods, and earth, the world of humans. Tutankhamun’s sandals included engravings of his adversaries, signifying that he was stomping on Egypt’s foes with each stride. However, it was Narmer who first popularised the idea of Egyptian pharaohs donning a particular style of magical footwear.
King Narmer Was a Warrior
Narmer is portray in surviving chronicles as a skilled military leader, notably those of Herodotus and Manetho. Before Narmer conquered the North (Lower Egypt). And established his dominion over the entire Nile Valley. The kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt had been at war for generations. He is depicted slaying adversaries without mercy in artifacts like the Narmer palette. The Narmer macehead (which is a weapon in and of itself). And numerous inscriptions, seals, and ivory tablets. The Narmer palette depicts him preparing to deliver a fatal blow while holding a mace in one hand. And seizing an enemy by the hair. King Narmer approaches the beheaded prisoners as part of a triumph march on the opposite side of the palette.
He slaughtered adversaries by taking the shape of a fish. As we have already discussed, and according to Manetho. He “led the army through the frontier and achieved great glory.” Egyptologists today believe that this indicated that he traveled to Palestine. Because several serekhs bearing the name Narmer was discovered in southern Palestine.
King Narmer Was a Founder Too
Again, according to Manetho, Narmer established numerous settlements that subsequently grew into important Egyptian cities. Including Memphis, the first capital of the unified state. He most likely established the religion of Horus. The first state-wide religious movement, in the city of Hierakonpolis, also known as Nekhen in ancient Egypt. Being an Egyptian pharaoh require the construction of cities. And many of the earliest monarchs were depicted with pride holding the plough, a representation of city foundation.
Ritually, the king would carve a groove in the ground near the River Nile. To designate the location of a village. Then workers would begin laying the groundwork for important structures like temples and regal palaces. In order to store the valuable grain that may be disperse in the event of a drought or other disasters. A granary was also constructed.
King Narmer Unified the Country
The Narmer palette features a weird scene involving two long-necked quadrupeds on its reverse. Egyptologists refer to these as serpopards because they are a cross between a leopard and a snake. In this instance, two royal officials are pulling on ropes that are fastened to the entangled necks of the serpopards. Narmer is best to know for uniting Lower and Upper Egypt. With the exception of three disputed kingships during the Intermediate Periods, the kingdom of Egypt would remain united for millennia. In addition to having a long lifespan, it was also the first state to be established in Africa. And one of the first territorial states in human history. The Egyptian king Narmer was in charge of this crucial moment in human history.
King Narmer Was Well Regard by Later Egyptian Pharaohs
Among other significant items, the Narmer palette. Which we have discussed extensively. Was discovered in the so-called “Main Deposit” of the Temple of Horus at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis). James Quibell and Frederick Green. Two of the most significant Egyptian explorers of the early 20th century CE, made the discovery. They published their results in 1900. But although they were disciples of Flinders Petrie, their recordings of the dig were not very accurate
Throughout Egyptian history. It was common to bury votives and ritual objects in temple foundations. And the relics that were burial were typically significant items that belong to revered former pharaohs. The creators of the Temple of Horus considered Narmer to be the most significant pharaoh in this instance. Believing that his image would safeguard the Temple and its patrons for many years to come.