Egypt Nile Nature
The Nile has provided Egypt with more water than it needs for millennia. The demand for water increased in tandem with the growth of the population and the economy. Here we study the Egypt Nile Nature and we give a detailed analysis of how overall water demand outstripped Nile water supply in the late 1970s, progressing from a surplus of approximately 20 km3 per year in the 1960s to a deficit of around 40 km3 per year in the late 2010s. Virtual water is imported to fill the void.
Based on a detailed analysis of water consumption by agriculture and other sectors, the significance of economic growth in boosting per capita water demand is quantified. We design and evaluate an empirical model of water demand in Egypt that links water demand to economic and population growth rates. Looking ahead, we estimate that, under nominal population and economic development scenarios, Egypt will import more virtual water than it receives from the Nile by the 2020s, calling into doubt the historical definition of Egypt as “the gift of the Nile.”
Egyptian Nile River
The ancient Egyptians established a distinct material culture over the span of five millennia, formed in large part by their local terrain, natural resources, and relationship with the Nile River. The Greek historian Herodotus said in the 5th century BCE that “any discerning person” could perceive that Lower Egypt was a “gift of the river” (Herodotus, 2.5). While his remarks were limited to the north and the Delta; they are universally applicable across the Nile River Valley. The Nile offered food and supplies, territory for agriculture, a means of transportation, and was essential in the delivery of materials for building projects and other large-scale initiatives in Egypt. It was a lifeline that practically brought the desert to life.
The Nile River’s present name derives from the Greek word Nelios, although the Egyptians called it Iteru, which means “River.” With a length of 6,825 kilometres, the Nile is the world’s longest river. The White Nile, Blue Nile, and Atbara rivers are the three primary branches of the Nile River System. The river’s sources, Lake Victoria and Lake Albert, feed into the White Nile. The Blue Nile causes the annual flood and supplies the majority of the river’s water and silt. The Atbara river has a smaller impact because it only flows once in a while.
The Nile contains a series of six main cataracts in the south, which begin at Aswan. A cataract is a narrow swath of turbulence generated when flowing water collides with refractory rock layers. Large outcroppings of granite in the Nile cataracts make the river’s flow erratic and much more difficult to navigate by boat. At Aswan, the cataract system provided a natural border between Egypt and its southern neighbor, Nubia.
The Delta of Egypt
The Delta, the Western Desert, the Eastern Desert, and the Nile Valley were the four distinct geographic zones of ancient Egypt, which were located in northeastern Africa. Each of these zones has its unique natural environment and significance within Egypt’s government. Cities could only thrive in places like the Nile Delta, Nile Valley, and desert oases, where people had access to water, land, and other essential resources. The ancient Egyptians observered of nature, connected the Nile Valley with life and abundance, whereas the surrounding deserts were the sign of death and chaos.
Kemet, or “black land,” alludes to the Nile Valley’s rich, fertile terrain, whereas Deshret, or “red land,” refers to the hot, arid desert. The difference between the red and black lands was not just physical or geographical; it also had an impact on Egyptians’ daily life. The desert, for example, has a dry environment that makes it a good place for cemeteries. The annual Nile flood did not cause any damage to people’s graves; and the dry climate preserved tombs and their contents. So much of what archaeologists and anthropologists examine originates from a funeral environment due to good preservation and the fact that most people do not live in the desert.
Upper and Lower Egypt and Nile Nature
Upper and Lower Egypt have different scenery. The Egyptian name Tawy means “Two Lands,” referring to ancient Egypt’s two primary areas, Upper and Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt is located in the north and contains the Nile Delta; whilst Upper Egypt is located in the south and comprises areas. These two names may appear to be at odds with their physical locations; yet they reflect the Nile River’s flow from south to north.
The Nile Delta’s broad floodplain and the Nile Valley’s limited strip of arable land resulted in distinct lifestyles. The Egyptians built their towns and cemeteries on turtlebacks in the Nile Delta, for example; natural highpoints in the landscape that became islands during the inundation. Furthermore, the Delta’s location along the Mediterranean and near the Levant’s entry point made it a vital place for trade and international ties. Throughout Egyptian history, the Delta was a multi-cultural zone.