Ancient Egyptian Kings in New Kingdom;
New Kingdom – Egyptian Dynasties -1550 – 1069 BC
Eighteenth Dynasty 1550 – 1295 BC
Ancient Egyptian kings New kingdom; With the arrival of the New Kingdom, Egypt was reborn. The Egyptian army moved beyond its conventional frontiers into Palestine and Syria when the Theban kings evicted the Hyksos. Also, the administration was transformed into a dynamic system of regal appointments with personnel chosen on merit, in addition, the country experienced unparalleled worldwide success. A vast empire was established, bringing with it material prosperity, in addition, new ideals to Egypt.
The roots of a powerful Egypt were set by a succession of very capable rulers and queens, who left the nineteenth dynasty with a wealthy economy. Thutmose I dominated the Near East and Nubia after Ahmose evicted the Hyksos. Also, the great Amenhotep III, who initiated an aesthetic revolution; Akhenaton and Nefertiti, who started a religious revolution by accepting the concept of one deity; and ultimately, Tutankhamen, who has become so known in our present world. Ancient Egyptian kings New kingdom;
- Ahmose 1550-1525
- Amenhotep I1525-1504
- Thutmose I 1504-1492
- Thutmose II 1492-1479
- Hatshepsut 1479-1425
- Thutmose III 1479-1425
- Amenhotep II 1427-1400
- Thutmose IV 1400-1390
- Amenhotep III 1390-1352
- Amenhotep IV(Akhenaten) 1352-1336
- Smenkhkare 1338-1336
- Tutankhamun 1336-1327
- Ay 1327-1323
- Horemheb 1323-1295
Nineteenth Dynasty 1295 – 1186 BC
Seti I’s reign resembled that of the mid-eighteenth dynasty and was marked by significant wealth. Also, he was responsible for the restoration of numerous monuments. Also, his temple in Abydos has some of the best carved wall reliefs in the world. Rameses II, his son, is the dynasty’s most important character. Around this period, in addition, the Hittites had established themselves as a major Asian force. Between the two kingdoms, an uncomfortable balance of power emerged, punctuated by battles and treaties.
Egypt was already an ethnically diverse nation, as seen by the range of creative expression. Unfortunately, history was moving against Rameses, and Merenptah had to fight to keep Egypt’s status.
- Rameses I 1295-1294
- Seti I 1294-1279
- Rameses II 1279-1213
- Merenptah 1213-1203
- Amenmessu 1203-1200
- Sety II 1200-1194
- Saptah 1194-1188
- Tausret 1188-1186
Twentieth Dynasty 1186 – 1069 BC
Firstly, Setnakht reigned for only a few years, however, after a period of instability, he restored order. Rameses III, his son, was the last great ruler. Also, he gave Egypt one last moment of glory by conquering the Sea People, who had annihilated the Hittite Empire and swept everything in their path on their march south.
Then, Egypt began to experience economic issues , in addition, a societal breakdown after Rameses III. She was unable to profit from the Iron Age transformation, and a dynasty of kings, all named Rameses, followed. Perhaps this was a futile attempt to relive the glory days of the past. Ancient Egyptian kings New kingdom;
- Setnakht 1186-1184
- Rameses III 1184-1153
- Rameses IV 1153-1147
- Rameses V 1147-1143
- Rameses VI 1143-1136
- Rameses VII 1136-1129
- Rameses VIII 1129-1126
- Rameses IX 1126-1108
- Rameses X 1108-1099
- Rameses XI 1099-1069
Third Intermediate Period 1069 – 747 BC
Twenty First Dynasty 1069 – 945 BC
After Rameses XI died, Smendes declared himself king and reigned from Tanis in the Delta. At Thebes, the land was eventually partitioned between the monarchs and the Amun high priests. Ancient Egyptian kings New kingdom;
- Smendes 1069-1043
- Amenemnesu 1043-1039
- Psusennes I 1039-991
- Amenernipet 993-984
- Osorkon 984-978
- Siamun 978-959
- Psusennes II 959-945
Twenty Second Dynasty 945 – 715 BC
For the following 200 years, Egypt was dominated by Libyan kings. Shoshenk (the Bible’s Shishak) brought the country’s split factions together. in addition, Shoshenk went against Jerusalem after the death of Solomon of Israel, in addition, conquered the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Also, he eventually came to a halt at Megiddo, the location of Thutmose III’s victory some 500 years earlier. Ancient Egyptian kings New kingdom;
- Shoshenk I 945-924
- Osorkon I 924-889
- Shoshenk II 890
- Takelot I 889-874
- Osorkon II 874-850
- Takelot II 850-825
- Shoshenk III 825-773
- Pimay 773-767
- Shoshenk V 767-730
- Osorkon IV 730-715
Twentieth Third Dynasty 818 – 715 BC
Pedubast, a prince from the central Delta, declared himself king at Leontopolis during Shoshenk III’s rule. Thus, at the same period, two dynasties ruled: the twenty-second at Tanis and the twenty-third at Leontopolis.
When a third man believed to be king, the situation grew even more perplexing. As a result of the weak administration, the Nubians were able to establish a major influence in southern Egypt.
- Kings at Leontopolis
- Pedubast I 818-793
- Iuput I
- Shoshenk IV 780
- Osorkon III 777-749
Twentieth Fourth Dynasty 727 – 715 BC
The Kings of Sais attempted to build an alliance to oppose the Nubian menace, however, they ultimately failed.
Egyptian Dynasties Late Period 747 – 30 BC
Twentieth Fifth Dynasty 780 – 656 BC
The twenty-fifth dynasty was created by the native lords of Kush (now Sudan) who invaded a degraded Egypt. Also, they recreated Egypt’s traditional rituals by having old books recopied, constructing sacred structures in Thebes, in addition, resurrecting the practise of pyramid burials. Meanwhile, Taharka aided Palestine’s resistance against King Sennacherib of Assyria, but his army was crushed by Sennacherib’s son, Esarhaddon. Also, Memphis, along with its royal harem, was destroyed. Then, Taharka returned from his exile in Upper Egypt after Esarhaddon’s retreat from Egypt and slaughtered the Assyrian garrisons. Also, he ruled Egypt until Esarhaddon’s son, Ashurbanipal, beat him, and he escaped south to Nubia, where he died and was buried in a huge pyramid at Nuri.
- Piy 747-716
- Shabako 716-702
- Shabatka 702-690
- Taharka 690-664
- Tantarnani 644-656
Twenty sixth Dynasty 664–525 BC
Firstly, Psamtek I brought Egypt back together, liberated it from the Assyrians, and established the Saite dynasty. He overhauled Egypt’s government and dismantled the final vestiges of Kushite control.
Also, Psamtek and Amose II completed a number of construction projects, including Neko II’s innovative plan to build a canal between the Red Sea and the Nile. Neko II overcame Josiah of Judah’s troops, but was later crushed by Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian armies.
- Neko I 672-664
- Psamtek 1 644-610
- Neko II 610-595
- Psamtek II 595-589
- Apries 589-570
- Amose II 570-526
- Psamtek III 526-525
Twenty Seventh Dynasty 525 – 404 BC
Persia’s King Cambyses II invaded Egypt. Polycrates of Samos, an Egyptian ally from Greece, aided him. Also, he Arabs aided him by providing water for his soldiers as they crossed the Sinai Desert. Then, Cambyses conquered Heliopolis and Memphis after winning the Battle of Pelusium (525 BC) in the Nile Delta. Egypt’s defense crumbled after these defeats.
In 518 BC, Darius I paid a visit to Egypt, which he labelled a rebellious country due to the disobedience of its governor Aryandes, whom he executed.
- Persian rulers of Egypt
- Cambyses 525-522
- Darius I 522-486
- Xerxes 486-465
- ArtaxerxesI 465-424
- Darius II 424-405
- Artaxerxes II 405-359
Twenty Eighth Dynasty 404 – 399BC
Amyrtacus led a revolt against Persian control for nearly a decade. Then, following the death of Darius II, he proclaimed himself king , in addition, restored Egypt’s original monarchy. Little is recorded about him save that his capital was in the Delta, Also, he was able to extend his rule as far south as Aswan, Egypt’s historic boundary. He was the twenty-eighth dynasty’s sole ruler.
- Amyrtacus 404-399
Twenty Ninth Dynasty 399 – 380 BC
Egypt was no longer under foreign rule, and a period of stabilization and rebuilding began. Then, following the death of Nepherites I, a power struggle ensued, with Hakor emerging victorious. In addition, he did a lot of construction work throughout his fourteen-year reign. Also, he signed a truce with Athens against the Persians in 389 BC, and with the support of Greek mercenaries, he withstood three Persian attacks.
- Nepherites I 399-393
- Hakor 393-380
- Nepherites II 380
Thirtieth Dynasty 380 – 343 BC
Egypt was attacked by an army of Persians and Greeks under Nectanebo I’s rule, which lasted eighteen years. Then, they succeeded in crushing the Egyptians at first, but Nectanebo counterattacked and defeated them.
His son Takos, with the help of Greek mercenaries, set out to conquer Syria from the Persians. However, when he raised taxes to fund this excursion, he made himself unpopular.
- Nectanebo I 380-362
- Takos 362-360
- Nectanebo II 360-343
Thirty First Dynasty 343 – 332 BC
The first effort by Artaxerxes to capture Egypt, which had been autonomous since 404 BC, failed. Then, he attempted again a few years later, in addition, in Pelusium in the Nile delta, he beat Nectanebo II. Meanwhile, Artaxerxes is claimed to have slaughtered the Apis bull with his own hands, destroying the walls of Egypt’s cities, in addition, plundering its temples. Then, Darius III was the Persian Empire’s final king.
Second Persian Period
- Artaxerxes III 343-338
- Arses 338-336
- Darius III 336-332
- Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great) 332–323 BC
Firstly, Alexander arrived in Egypt in November 332 BC, then, the Egyptians greeted him as their deliverer from the Persians. Also, he was anointed with the typical double crown of the pharaohs after making a sacrifice to Apis, the holy Egyptian bull. In addition, near the western arm of the Nile, he established the city of Alexandria.
Ptolemaic Period 305 – 30BC
Under Alexander, Ptolemy I established himself as a trustworthy troop leader, in addition, during the conference at Babylon following Alexander’s death, he proposed that the vast empire’s provinces be split among the generals. Also, he became Egypt’s governor and eventually its king, securing the country’s boundaries against external adversaries , in addition, won the Egyptians’ favour by reconstructing their temples, which had been devastated by the Persians, and by making gifts to the Egyptian gods, aristocracy, and priesthood. In addition, he constructed the famed library of Alexandria, in addition, established the Museum (Mouseion), a communal workspace for researchers and artists.
Also, Ptolemy II built the famed lighthouse on the island of Pharos, off the coast of Alexandria, which was one of the old world’s seven wonders. Then, Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator, Egypt’s last pharaoh, was a woman. Her efforts to retain Egypt’s freedom and restore its splendour were bound to fail. All of the ancient Mediterranean world’s ancient empires were now surrendering to Rome’s undeniable supremacy.
- Ptolemy I 305-285 (Soter I) General of Alexander
- Ptolemy II 285-246 (Philadelphus)
- Ptolemy III 246-221 (Euergetes I)
- Ptolemy IV 221-205 (Philopator)
- Ptolemy V 205-180 (Epiphanes)
- Ptolemy VI 180-145 (Philometor)
- Ptolemy VII 145 (Neos Philopator)
- Ptolemy VIII 170-116 (Euergetes II)
- Ptolemy IX 116-107 (Soter II)
- Ptolemy X 107-88 (Alexander I)
- Ptolemy XI 80 (Alexander II)
- Ptolemy XII 80-51 (Neos Dionysos)
- Cleopatra VII 51-30 (Philopator)
- Ptolemy XV 44-30 (Caesarion)